Bobsleigh is an event in the winter Olympic games where a two - or four-person team drives a specially sled on the ice track, with the winning team completing the route with the lowest time. The event was shown from the first winter Games in 1924 in Chamonix, France, with the exception of the 1960 games in Squaw valley when the organizing Committee decided not to build the route in order to cut costs. In addition to this exception, four men competed with each other in each game. Two man event was introduced at the 1932 lake placid games and two woman event was first contested in 2002 in sa ...
Hosted the bobsleigh at the winter youth Olympic games 2012 at the Olympic sliding centre Innsbruck in Igls, Innsbruck, Austria on January 16. The competition had 2 boys and 2 girls event 4 boys competitions are excluded.
In Piste de bobsleigh de Pelerin) was built bobsled and Luge track for the Olympic winter games 1924 in Chamonix, France.
Bobsled and bobsled is a team winter sport that involves making timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in Gravity-powered sleigh. International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the international bobsleigh and skeleton Federation, also known as shift from French Federation international de bobsleigh and Luge. National competitions are often governed by bodies such as the Federation of the USA bobsled and skeleton and bobsleigh Canada skeleton.
The first bobsled was built in the Swiss resort of St. Moritz in the late 19th century, wealthy tourists from Victorian England who stayed in hotel Palace belongs to Caspar Badrutt. The first sleigh were adapted from boys delivery sleds and toboggans. These eventually turned into bobsleighs, toboggans or skeletons. Initially tourists will be racing their hand-built structures along the narrow streets of St. Moritz, however, as collisions increases with growing opposition from residents of St. Moritz has led to bobsleigh in the end banned of public roads. In the winter of 1884, and was specifically built to run built near the hamlet of the cross. The Cresta run remains the oldest in the world and is the home of the St. Moritz Tobogganing club. It hosted two Olympic winter Games and is still in use.
Modern bobsled teams compete to complete the descent in the fastest time. A combination of time from several runs is used to determine the winners. Four man event was marked with the first winter Games in 1924 in Chamonix, France. The only exception are the games of 1960 in Squaw valley when the organizing Committee decided not to build a highway to cut costs. Two man event was introduced at the 1932 games and a two woman event was first contested at the Olympic winter games of 2002.
1.1. History. Origin
Although sledding on snow or ice has long been popular in many Northern countries, the origins of the modern bobsled as a sport recently. It began when hotelier Caspar Badrutt 1848-1904 believe how rich the English regulars to stay all winter at your hotel in the Mineral Spa town of St. Moritz, Switzerland. He was upset that his hotel was busy during the summer months. Keeping guests entertained with food, alcohol, and activity, he quickly invented the concept of "winter resorting". For several years, wintering in the Badrutts hotel St. Moritz has become very fashionable in Victorian England. However, with the increasing number of this has led some people to search for new diversions. In the early 1870s years, some enterprising British began adapting delivery boys sleds for recreation purposes.
However, when they began colliding with pedestrians on the icy paths, alleys and roads of St. Moritz, this has led to the invention of the "steering means" for sleds. The main bobsled consisted of two buildings skeleton sleds attached together with a Board which was steering on the front. The ability to steer meant that the sled can make more passes through the city. Working longer also means higher cornering speeds. Local sentiments varied about these informal competitions, but eventually the complaints became so vociferous that there was something to do. His solution was to create a simple, natural ice for the rest of the city, near a small village named cross in the late 1870-ies. And took action, because he doesnt want to make enemies in the city, and he worked hard and without investing a lot of time and money to popularize wintering in St. Moritz, so he wasnt going to let customers stop coming because of boredom.
1.2. History. Competitive discipline. (Соревновательная дисциплина)
The official competition began to descend with a natural ice cross work in 1884, which was built in the annual partnership between the guests and local residents. Running, which is still in operation in 2014, started to follow the skeleton in two winter Olympics in 1928 and 1948. As one of the few natural weather tracks in the world, it does not use artificial refrigeration. It is unknown how much the original track evolved in the early years as the three sports matured and stabilized. The first club was formed in 1897, and the first purpose-built track solely for bobsleds was opened in 1902 near St. Moritz. For many years, bobsleigh tracks evolved from straight track to twisting and turning tracks. The original wooden sleds gave way to streamlined fiberglass and metal.
The international bobsleigh and skeleton bobsleigh Federation was founded in 1923. Mens four bobsleigh appeared in the first ever winter Olympics in 1924, and mens two bobsleigh event was added in 1932. Although not included in winter Olympics 1960, bobsleigh participate in every Olympic Winter games since. Womens bobsleigh began in the US in 1983 with two demonstration races in lake placid, new York, held in February and the second during world Cup races in March 1983. Womens two woman bobsleigh made its Olympic debut at the Olympic Winter games of 2002. Bobsleigh is also contested at American, European, and world championship.
Germany and Switzerland were the most successful bobsledding Nations measured by overall success in European, world Cup and Olympic Championships. Since the 1990s years, the Germans have dominated in international competition, winning more medals than any other nation. Italy, Austria, USA and Canada also have strong bobsleigh traditions.
Bob can reach speeds of 150 km / h 93 mph, and announced a world record of 201 km / h 125 mph.
"Competition bobsleigh very noble." World fair play award was awarded to an Italian bobsleigh competitor, Eugenio Monti, 1964, then after 30 years the Australian bobsleigh competitor, Justin MacDonald, 1994.
2.1. The modern era. Tracks. (Треков)
Modern tracks are made of concrete, covered with ice. They should have at least one straight section and one labyrinth three turns in a row without straight. Ideally, a modern track should be 1.200 to 1.300 meters 3.900–4.300 feet long and at least fifteen curves. Speeds may exceed 120 kph 75 mph, and some curves can subject the crews to as much as 5 gr.
Some bobsleigh tracks are also used for Luge and skeleton competitions.
Some tracks offer tourists a trip to Bobs, including in Sigulda, Latvia, Innsbruck-Igls, Austria, calgary, Alberta, Canada, Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, Lillehammer, Norway, in cesana Pariol, Italy, lake placid, USA, salt lake city, Utah, USA and La Plagne, France.
2.2. The modern era. Sleighs and carriages. (Сани и кареты)
Modern sleighs combine light metals, steel runners, and an aerodynamic composite body. Competition sleighs must be a maximum of 3.80 m 12.5 ft length of 4-the crew or 2.70 m 8.9 ft length of 2-crew. The runners on both are set at 0.67 M 2.2 ft sensor. Until the weight-limit rule was added in 1952, bobsleigh crews, as a rule, was very hard to provide the maximum possible speed. Currently, the maximum weight, including crew, is 630 kilograms 1.390 kg 4 persons, 390 kg 860 LB 2-x, or 340 kg 750 lbs 2-woman, which can be achieved through the addition of metal weights. In Bobs themselves are designed to be as light as possible to allow dynamic positioning of the masses through the turns of a bobsled run.
Although the bobsleigh crews once consisted of five or six people, they were reduced to two and quadruple sled in the 1930-ies. The crew is the pilot, conductor, and lifters. Athletes are selected based on their speed and strength, necessary to push the sleigh to a competitive speed at the start of the race. Pilots must have hearing, sense of rhythm and tact to translate the sled along the path, or "line" that will produce the greatest speed.
Modern and Bob, the steering system consists of two metal rings, which actuates the pulley system located in the nose cone, which turns the front runners. For example, to turn left, the pilot will pull the left ring. It is necessary to send the sled only subtle adjustments to steering, at speeds up to 80 km / h 130 km / h, whats more, will lead to the collapse. The pilot does most of the steering, and the brakeman stops the sled after crossing the finish line, pulling a sled brake lever.
Women compete in womens bobsleigh, which is always two-women and men in both two and four-man competitions. Women were confirmed as successfully compete in any of the four"man" bobsled event as of 25 September 2014, or as part of mixed teams or all-female team.
2.3. The modern era. Race. (Гонки)
Separate descents down the course, or "heats", begin from the beginning, with the crew pushing the sled for up to 50 metres 160 feet before landing, although the pilot does not steer, grooves in the ice make steering unnecessary until the sled leaves the starting area. While poor form during the initial push can lose a team the heat, otherwise it is rarely, if ever, decisive. Over the rest, of course, the speed of the sled depends on its weight, aerodynamics, runners, the condition of the ice, and the skill of the pilot.
Race times are recorded in hundredths of seconds, so even seemingly minor errors, especially in the beginning, which affect the remainder heat can have a significant impact on the final race standings.
Mens and womens standings for normal races are calculated over the aggregate of two runs or heats. At the Olympic Winter games and world Championships, all competitions for men and women consist of four races.
- The International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation IBSF originally known by the French name Federation Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing
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- event and a bronze in the four - man event. Bobsleigh two - man Olympic medalists 1932 - 56 and since 1964 Bobsleigh four - man Olympic medalists for 1924, 1932 - 56
- The four - man bobsleigh results at the 1956 Winter Olympics in Cortina d Ampezzo, Italy. The competition was held on Friday and Saturday, 3 and 4 February
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- two - man bobsleigh competition at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia was held on 10 and 11 February, at the Sarajevo Olympic Bobsleigh and Luge
- The two - man bobsleigh competition at the 2018 Winter Olympics was held on 18 and 19 February at the Alpensia Sliding Centre near Pyeongchang, South Korea
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- The 2014 15 Bobsleigh World Cup is a multi race tournament over a season for bobsleigh The season started on 12 December 2014 in Lake Placid, United States
- The two - man bobsleigh results at the 1932 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. Bobsleigh at the 1932 Lake Placid Winter Games: Men s Two Sports Reference
- two - man bobsleigh results at the 1952 Winter Olympics in Oslo. The competition was held on Thursday and Friday, 14 and 15 February 1952. Bobsleigh at the
- four - man bobsleigh competition at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia was held on 17 and 18 February, at the Sarajevo Olympic Bobsleigh and Luge
- The two - man bobsleigh competition at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada was held at the Whistler Sliding Centre in Whistler
- The four - man bobsleigh results at the 1948 Winter Olympics in St. Moritz, Switzerland. The competition was held on Friday and Saturday, 6 and 7 February
- The Piste de Bobsleigh des Pellerins Pellerins Bobsleigh Track in in French was a bobsleigh track constructed for the 1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix
- The four - man bobsleigh competition at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, was held at the Whistler Sliding Centre in Whistler
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