Society is a group of individuals involved in continuous social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and dominant culture. Societies are characterized by relationships between individual people having their own culture and institutions of a given society can be described as a set of relations between its constituent elements. In the social Sciences, the society often shows stratification or patterns of dominance in groups.
Societies construct patterns of behavior, considering certain actions or speech as acceptable or unacceptable. These patterns of behavior in a particular society are called social norms. Societies and their norms are gradually changing and eternal.
Because it is collaborative, a society can enable its members to benefit in ways that otherwise would be individually difficult, both individual and public good can be released, or in many cases overlap. A society can also consist of like-minded people guided by their own norms and values within a dominant society. It is sometimes referred to as a subculture, a term widely used in criminology.
In a broader sense, especially in structuralist thought, a society can be shown how economic, social, industrial or cultural infrastructure, consisting of, But unlike, diverse collection of individuals. In this regard society can mean the objective relationships people with the material world and with other people, not "other people" beyond the individual and their familiar social environment.
1. Etymology and usage. (Этимология и использование)
The term "society" comes from the Latin word society, which in turn derives from the noun socius used to describe the communication or interaction among parties that are friendly, or at least civil. Without articles, this term can refer to all of humanity, although those who are unfriendly or uncivil to the rest of society in this sense can be considered "antisocial". However, the Scottish economist Adam Smith taught that the society "may subsist among different men, as among different merchants, from a sense of its utility without any mutual love or affection, if only they refrain from hurting each other."
Used in the sense of Association, a society is a body of persons specified in the framework of functional interdependence, possibly comprising characteristics such as national or cultural identity, social solidarity, language or hierarchical structure.
2. Concept. (Концепция)
Society, in General, takes into account the fact that the person has very limited ability as a stand-alone unit. Apes have always been more or less gorilla Pongo social animals, therefore "Robinson Crusoe" -like situations are fictions or unusual cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans who fall between presocial and public in the spectrum of animal ethology.
Cultural relativism as a widespread approach or ethic has largely replaced notions of "primitive", better / worse, or "progress" in relation to cultures, including their material culture and technology, and social organization.
According to anthropologist Maurice Godel, one of the most important novelty in the society, unlike the humans closest biological relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, is the parental role of males, which supposedly would be absent in our nearest relatives for whom paternity is not clear at all.
2.1. Concept. In political science. (В политической науке)
Companies can also be structured politically. In ascending order of size and complexity, there are several groups, tribes, chiefdoms, States and societies. These structures can have varying degrees of political power, depending on the cultural, geographical and historical environments that these societies must contend with. Thus, a more isolated society with the same level of technology and culture of other societies is more likely to survive than in close proximity to others that may encroach on their resources. A society that is unable to offer an effective response to other societies it competes with will usually be included in the culture of the competing society.
2.2. Concept. In sociology. (В социологии)
Sociologist Peter L. Berger defines society as ".human product, and nothing but a human product, that yet continuously acts on its manufacturer". According to him, the society was created by humans, but this creature returns and creates or molds people every day.
Sociologist Gerhard Lenski differentiates societies based on their level of communication, information technologies and Economics: 1 of hunters and gatherers, simple agricultural 2, 3 advanced agricultural, 4 Industrial, and 5 special, for example, fishing societies or Maritime societies. This is similar to the system earlier developed by anthropologists Morton H. fried, a conflict theorist, and Elman service, an integration theorist, that it has created a system of classification for societies in all human cultures based on the evolution of social inequality and the role of the state. This system of classification contains four categories:
- Hunter-gatherer classification duties and responsibilities. Then came the agricultural society.
- Civilizations, with complex social hierarchies and organized, institutional governments.
- Tribal societies in which there are some limited instances of social rank and prestige.
- Stratified structures led by chieftains.
In addition to this there is:
- Virtual society, a society based on the personality that develops in the information age.
- Humanity, mankind, upon which all elements of society, including societys beliefs.
Over time, some cultures have progressed toward more complex forms of organization and management. This cultural evolution has a strong influence on community structure. Tribes of hunters-gatherers settled around seasonal food stocks to become agrarian villages. Villages have become cities. Cities turned into city-States and nation-States.
Many societies distribute the bounty at the behest of some individual or large groups of people. This generosity can be seen in all known cultures, as a rule, the prestige gets a generous man or group. On the other hand, members of society may also shun or scapegoat any members of society who violate its norms. Mechanisms such as gift exchange, joking relationships and the search for scapegoats, which can be seen in various types of human groups, usually must be institutionalized in society. Social evolution as a phenomenon carries with it certain elements that can have disastrous consequences for the population it serves.
Some societies bestow status of an individual or group of people when that individual or group performs admired or desired action. This recognition is given in the form of the name, title, manner of dress, or monetary reward. In many societies, adult male or female status to be a ritual or a process of this type. Altruistic action in the interests of a large group is observed in almost all societies. The phenomena of social activities for fear of being a scapegoat, generosity, shared risk, and reward are common to many forms of society.
3. Types. (Типы)
Societies are social groups that differ according to subsistence strategies, the ways that people use technology to provide needs for themselves. Although people have established many types of societies throughout history, anthropologists tend to classify different societies, depending on the extent to which different groups in society have unequal access to advantages such as resources, prestige or power. Virtually all societies have developed some degree of inequality among their people through the process of social stratification the division of members of society into levels with unequal wealth, prestige, power. Sociologists place societies in three broad categories: pre-industrial and postindustrial.
3.1. Types. Pre-industrial. (Доиндустриальный)
In pre-industrial society, food production, which is carried out through the use of human and animal labor, is main economic activity. These companies can be divided according to their level of technology and their method of food production. These subdivisions are hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural and feudal.
3.2. Types. Hunting and gathering. (Охота и собирательство)
The main form of food production in such societies is the daily collection of wild plants and hunting wild animals. Hunter-gatherers move around constantly in search of food. As a result, they do not build permanent villages or create a wide variety of artifacts and usually only form small groups such as groups and tribes. However, some hunters and gatherers in areas with rich natural resources, such as the Tlingit people lived in larger groups and formed complex hierarchical social structures such as the chiefdom. The need for mobility also limits the size of these societies. As a rule, they consist of at least 60 people and rarely exceeds 100. Status in a tribe are relatively equal, and decisions are made on the basis of General agreement. The ties that bind the tribe are more complex than those of the group. Leadership is personal - charismatic - and used for special purposes in the tribal society. There are no political bodies, containing real power, and the head-man of influence, a sort of Advisor, so tribal consolidation for collective action are not governmental. The family is the basic social unit, the majority of whose members are connected by birth or marriage. This type of organization requires the family to carry out most social functions, including production and education.
3.3. Types. Pastoral. (Пастырское)
Pastoralism is a slightly more efficient form of existence. Not in search of food on a daily basis, members of a pastoral society rely on domesticated herd animals to meet their food needs. Pastoralists are nomadic, moving herds from one pasture to another. Because their food is much more robust pastoral societies can support a larger population. As there is a surplus of food, less people needed for food production. As a result of division of labour specialization of individuals or groups to accomplish specific types of economic activities becomes more complicated. For example, some people become masters producing tools, weapons, and jewelry, among other items of value. The production of goods encourages trade. This trade helps to create inequality, as some families acquire more goods than others do. These families often gain power by increasing their wealth. The transfer of property from one generation to another helps to centralize wealth and power. Over time, hereditary front hall, the typical form of government in pastoral societies.
3.4. Types. Horticultural. (Садоводческие)
Fruits and vegetables grown in garden plots that have been cleared from the jungle or forest are the main source of food in a horticultural society. These companies have the level of technology and complexity similar to pastoral societies. Some horticultural groups used slash-and-burn method of cultivation. The wild vegetation is cut and burned and the ashes used as fertilizer. Horticulturists use human labor and simple tools to cultivate the land for one or several seasons. When the land becomes barren, horticulturists clear a new plot and leave the old plot to revert to its natural state. They can return to the original land several years later, and begin again the process. When rotating their garden plots, horticulturists can stay in one area for quite a long time. This allows them to build semi-permanent or permanent villages. The size of the population of villages depends on the amount of land suitable for agriculture, so the villages can range from 30 people to 2000.
As in pastoral societies, surplus food leads to a more complex division of labor. Specialized roles in horticultural societies include craftspeople, shamans, religious leaders, and merchants. This role specialization allows people to create a variety of artifacts. As in pastoral societies, surplus food can lead to inequalities in wealth and power in the horticultural political systems, developed because of the settled nature of horticultural life.
3.5. Types. Agricultural. (Сельского хозяйства)
Agrarian societies use agricultural technological advances to cultivate crops over a large area. Sociologists use the phrase agricultural revolution to refer to the technological changes that have occurred until 8.500 years ago that led to cultivating crops and raising farm animals. The increase in the supply of food led to large populations than in earlier communities. This meant a greater surplus, which resulted in cities that became centers of trade for the service of various rulers, educators, craftspeople, merchants, and religious leaders who dont have to worry about finding food.
Appeared higher the level of social stratification in agrarian societies. For example, women previously had higher social status, as common work on an equal basis with men. In hunters and gatherers, women even gathered more food than men. However, grocery stores improved and women took a smaller role in providing food for the family, they increasingly became subordinate to men. In villages and towns to spread to adjacent areas, conflicts with other communities inevitably occurred. Farmers provided warriors with food in exchange for protection from invading enemies. Also there was a system of rulers with high social status. This nobility organized warriors to protect the society from invasion. Thus, the nobility managed to extract goods from "lesser" members of society.
3.6. Types. Feudal. (Феодальная)
Feudalism was a form of society based on ownership of land. Unlike todays farmers, vassals under feudalism were bound to cultivating their lords land. In exchange for military protection, the lords exploited the peasants into providing food, crops, crafts, homage, and other services of the landlord. Estates of the realm system of feudalism often generations, the families of peasants may have cultivated their masters of the land for many generations.
3.7. Types. Industrial. (Промышленные)
Between the 15th and 16th centuries, a new economic system that began to replace feudalism. Capitalism is characterized by open competition in a free market, in which the means of production are private property. In Europe studies North and South America served as one impetus for the development of capitalism. The introduction of foreign metals, silks and spices caused a great commercial activity in European societies.
Industrial societies rely heavily on machines powered by fuel to produce goods. This produced a further sharp increase in efficiency. Improving the efficiency of production of the industrial revolution produced an even greater surplus than before. Now the surplus not only agricultural products but also industrial goods. This large excess causes all of the changes discussed earlier in the domestication revolution becomes even more noticeable.
Once again, the population boomed. The performance improvement is more goods available for everyone. However, the disparity became even greater than before. The collapse of the agriculture-based feudal societies caused many people to leave the Land and seek work in the cities. This has created a large surplus labor to the capitalists and gave a lot of employees who could be hired for very low wages.
3.8. Types. Post-industrial. (Постиндустриальное)
Post-industrial society is a society dominated by information, services, and high technology more than the production of goods. Developed industrial countries are characterized by a shift in the direction of increase of the service sector over manufacturing and production. USA is the first country to have over half of the workforce is employed in the service sector. The services sectors are government, research, education, health, sales, law and banking.
4.1. Modern use Western. (Западные)
The development of the Western world brought a new concept of Western culture, politics, and ideas, often referred to simply as "Western society". Geographically, it covers at least, in Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. It sometimes also includes Eastern Europe, South America and Israel.
Culture and lifestyle all of these stem from Western Europe. They all have relatively strong economies and stable governments, allow freedom of religion, have chosen democracy as the form of governance, favor capitalism and international trade, are heavily influenced by Judeo-Christian values, and have some form military-political Alliance or cooperation.
4.2. Modern use Information. (Информация)
Although the concept of information society has been under discussion since the 1930-ies in the modern world it is almost always applied to how information technology has influenced society and culture. It therefore covers the effects of computers and telecommunications at home, in the workplace, schools, government, various communities and organizations, and the emergence of new social forms in cyberspace.
One of the European destinations of uniting of interests is the information society. Here policy is aimed at promoting an open and competitive digital economy, research in the field of information and communication technologies and their application to improve social inclusion public services and quality of life.
In the international telecommunication Union world summit on the information society in Geneva and Tunis in 2003 and 2005 resulted in a number of policy and application areas where measures are envisaged.
4.3. Modern use Knowledge. (Знания)
As access to electronic information resources increased at the beginning of the 21st century, special attention was extended from the information society to the knowledge society. Analysis of the Irish government stated that "the ability to manage, store and transmit large quantities of information cheaply has increased at a staggering pace in recent years. The digitization of information related to the wide spread of the Internet suggests the emergence of a new intensity in the application of knowledge to economic activities, to the extent that it has become the dominant factor in creating wealth. As much as 70 to 80 percent of economic growth is now said to be due to new and improved knowledge."
4.4. Modern use Other purposes. (Других целей)
People of many Nations United by common political and cultural traditions, beliefs, values, sometimes also said to form a society. When used in this context, the term is used as a means of contrasting two or more "society" whose members represent alternative conflicting and competing worldviews.
Some academic, professional and scientific associations describe themselves as societies.
In some countries, e.g. USA, France and Latin America, the term "society is used in Commerce to denote a partnership between investors or to start a business. In the United Kingdom, partnerships are not called societies, but co-op or a mutual insurance society is often referred to societies such as friendly societies and building societies.
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