★ Universe


★ Universe

The universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies and other forms of matter and energy. While the spatial size of the Universe is unknown, it is possible to measure the size of the visible Universe, which is currently estimated at 93 billion light years in diameter. In various hypotheses of the multiverse, and the universe is one of many causally disconnected component parts of the Grand Universe, which itself includes all of space and time and its content, as a consequence, the Universe and the multiverse’ are synonymous in such theories.

The earliest cosmological model of the Universe was developed by ancient Greek and Indian philosophers, and the geocentric, placing the Earth in the centre. Over the centuries, more precise astronomical observations led Nicolaus Copernicus to develop the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar system. In the development of the law of universal gravitation, Isaac Newton built on the work of Copernicus, and Johannes Keplers laws of planetary motion and Tychos observations.

Further monitoring improvements led to the realization that the Sun is one of hundreds of billions of stars in the milky Way galaxy, which is one of at least hundreds of billions of galaxies in the Universe. Many stars in our galaxy have planets. At the largest scale, galaxies are distributed evenly and equally in all directions, which means that the universe has no edge, no center. On a smaller scale, galaxies are distributed in clusters and superclusters, which form huge filaments and voids in space, creating a vast foam-like structure. Discoveries in the early 20th century suggested that the universe had a beginning and that space has been expanding since then, and currently still expanding at a faster pace.

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological description of the Universe. According to this theory, space and time originated together 13.799 ± 0.021 billion years ago, energy and matter originally present become less dense as the universe expanded. After the initial accelerated expansion of the Universe called the inflationary epoch, about 10 -32 seconds, and the separation of the four known fundamental forces of the Universe gradually cools and continues to expand, allowing the first subatomic particles and atoms to form. Dark matter gradually gathered together, forming a foam-like fiber structure and voids under the influence of gravity. Giant clouds of hydrogen and helium were gradually drawn into the places where dark matter was most dense, the formation of the first galaxies, stars and still see today. You can see objects that are now further away than 13.799 billion light years because space itself is expanding, and it is still expanding today. This means that objects that are now to 46.5 billion light years from us, still can be seen in their distant past, because in the past, when their light was emitted, they were much closer to the Ground.

By studying the motion of galaxies, it was discovered that the universe contains much more matter than is accounted for by visible objects, stars, galaxies, nebulae and interstellar gas. This invisible matter known as dark matter, dark means that there is a wide range of strong circumstantial evidence that it exists, but we havent detected directly. The ΛCDM model is the most widely accepted model of our Universe. This implies that about 69.2% ± 1.2% of the physical Universe. Stars, planets, gas clouds and is visible only about 6% of ordinary matter, or about 0.29% of the entire Universe.

There are many competing hypotheses about the ultimate fate of the Universe and what, if anything, after the Big Bang, while other physicists and philosophers refuse to speculate, doubting that information to the States will never be available. Some physicists have proposed various hypotheses of the multiverse in which our universe may be only one of many universes that also exist.


1. Definition. (Определение)

The physical universe is defined as the totality of space and time, collectively, the spaces and their contents. Such content includes all of the energy in its various forms, including electromagnetic radiation and matter, and therefore planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and the contents of intergalactic space. The universe also includes the physical laws that affect energy and matter, e.g. the conservation laws of classical mechanics and theory of relativity.

The universe is commonly defined as "the totality of being," or everything that exists, everything that exists and everything that will be. In fact, some philosophers and scientists support the inclusion of ideas and abstract concepts such as mathematics and logic in the definition of the Universe. The word universe can also refer to concepts such as space, peace, nature.


2. Etymology. (Этимология)

The word universe derives from the old French word Univers, which in turn comes from the Latin word Universum. The Latin word was used by Cicero and later Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used.

Synonyms. (Синонимы)

The term for the universe among the ancient Greek philosophers from Pythagoras year τὸ πᾶν, Pan, "all" is defined as all matter and all space, and τὸ ὅλον, Holon in the "all" which does not necessarily include the void. Another synonym was the word meaning ὁ, Ho Kosmos means world, space. Synonyms are found in Latin authors and survive in modern languages, for example, the German words Das all, Weltall, and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, for example, as in the theory of everything in the cosmos, as in cosmology, the world as a plurality of worlds and of nature, laws of nature, or natural philosophy.


3. Timeline Of The Big Bang. (Хронология Большого Взрыва)

The current model of evolution of the Universe is the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang model asserts that the earliest state of the Universe was extremely hot and dense the universe expanded and subsequently cooled. The model is based on the General theory of relativity and simplifying assumptions such as homogeneity and isotropy of space. Version of the model with the cosmological constant type and the cold dark matter model known as Lambda-CDM, is the simplest model that provides a reasonably good account of various observations about the Universe. The Big Bang model accounts for observations such as the correlation of distance and redshift of galaxies, the ratio of hydrogen to helium atoms, as well as microwave background radiation.

The initial hot and dense state, called the Planck era, a short period from zero to one unit of Planck time is about 10 -43 seconds. During the Planck epoch, all types of matter and all forms of energy were concentrated in a dense condition, and the gravity is currently the weakest of the four known forces - believed to have been as strong as other fundamental forces, and all forces can be unified. Since the era of Planck, expanding the space in its present extent, with a very short but intense period of cosmic inflation believed to have occurred during the first 10 -32 seconds. It was a kind of expansion different from those we see around us today. Objects in space do not physically move, not the metric that defines the space itself has changed. Although objects in space cannot move faster than the speed of light, this limitation does not apply to the very metric of space-time steering. This initial period of inflation, as expected, explains why the space seems very flat and much larger than the light could travel since the beginning of the Universe.

In the first second of existence of the universes four fundamental forces were separated. As the universe continued to cool from its unimaginably hot conditions was various types of subatomic particles in a state in short periods of time, known as the quark epoch, the hadron epoch and the lepton epoch. Together, the epoch embraces less than 10 seconds after the Big Bang. These elementary particles are connected consistently in all larger combinations, including stable protons and neutrons, which then formed more complex atomic nuclei through nuclear fusion. This process, known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis only lasted for about 17 minutes and ended about 20 minutes after the Big Bang, so there was only the rapid and simple reaction. About 25% of protons and neutrons in the Universe, by mass, was transformed into helium with a small admixture of deuterium in the form of hydrogen and traces of lithium. Any other element was formed only in very small quantities. The remaining 75% of the protons remains intact as the nucleus of hydrogen.

After nucleosynthesis is over, the universe entered a period known as the photon era. During this period the universe was still too hot for the formation of neutral atoms, so it contained the hot, dense, Foggy plasma of negatively charged electrons, neutral neutrinos and positive nuclei. After about 377.000 years, the universe cooled enough that electrons and nuclei can form stable atoms first. This is called recombination due to historical reasons, in fact, electrons and nuclei were combining for the first time. Unlike plasma, neutral atoms are transparent to many wavelengths of light, so the first time the universe became transparent. The liberated photons are "disconnected" when these atoms are formed can still be seen today, they form the cosmic microwave background CMB.

As the universe expands, the energy density of electromagnetic radiation decreases more quickly than that of matter because the energy of a photon decreases with its wavelength. Some 47.000 years, the energy density of matter became greater than that of photons and neutrinos, and began to dominate the large scale behavior of the Universe. This marked the end of the radiation-dominant era and the beginning of the matter dominated era.

At the earliest stages of development of the Universe, tiny fluctuations in the density of universes has led to the concentration of dark matter, gradually forming. Ordinary matter is attracted to it by gravity, the formation of large gas clouds and, eventually, stars and galaxies, where dark matter was most dense and void where it was least dense. After about 100 - 300 million years the first stars formed, known as population III stars. These were probably very massive, bright, short-lived and non-metallic. They were responsible for the gradual reionization of the Universe of about 200-500 million years 1 billion years, as well as for seeding the Universe with elements heavier than helium through stellar nucleosynthesis. The universe also contains a mysterious energy, possibly scalar field called dark energy whose density does not change over time. After about 9.8 billion years, the universe had expanded enough so that the density of matter is less than the density of dark energy, marking the beginning of the present dark energy dominated epoch. In this era, the expansion of the Universe is accelerating due to dark energy.


4. Physical properties. (Физические свойства)

Of the four fundamental interactions, gravitation is dominant in the astronomical scale. Gravitys effects are cumulative, the effect of positive and negative charges tend to balance one another, making electromagnetism relatively insignificant on the astronomical scale. The remaining two interactions, the weak and strong nuclear forces, very quickly decreases with increasing distance from their influence mainly to the subatomic scale.

The universe appears to be much more matter than antimatter, an asymmetry possibly related to the violation of cerebral palsy. This imbalance between matter and antimatter is partially responsible for the existence of all matter that exists today, as matter and antimatter, if not at least made the big Bang would have completely annihilated each other and left only photons as a result of their interaction. The universe seems neither net momentum nor angular momentum, which adheres to physical laws if the universe is finite. These laws are Gausss law and divergence of stress-energy-momentum pseudotensor.


4.1. Physical properties. Size and regions. (Размер и регионов)

The size of the Universe quite difficult to determine. According to the General theory of relativity, far regions of space may never interact with ours even in the life of the Universe because of the finite speed of light and expanding space. For example, radio messages sent from Earth may never reach some regions of space, even if the universe was to exist forever: the space can expand faster than the speed of light, can pass it.

Distant regions of space are assumed to exist and to be a part of reality, how would we, although we will never be able to interact with them. The spatial domain that we can affect it in the observable Universe. The observable Universe depends on the observer location. While traveling, an observer can come into contact with a large area of space-time than an observer who remains still. However, even the most rapid traveler will not be able to interact with all of space. Typically, the observable Universe is understood that part of the Universe, which is observed from our point of view in the milky Way.

The correct distance will be measured as at a particular time, including the present, between the Earth and the edge of the observable Universe is 46 billion light years to 14 billion parsecs, making the diameter of the observable Universe is 93 billion light years 28 billion parsecs. The distance that the light from the edge of the observable Universe traveled very close to the age of the Universe multiplied by the speed of light, 13.8 billion light-years 4.2 × 10 ^ 9 PC, but it does not represent the distance at any point in time, because on the edge of the observable Universe and earth is so apart. For comparison, the diameter of a typical galaxy is 30.000 light-years 9.198 parsecs, and the typical distance between two neighboring galaxies is 3 million light years 919.8 kiloparsecs. As an example, the milky Way is about 100.000 to 180.000 light years in diameter, and a close sister of the milky Way galaxy, the Andromeda galaxy is approximately 2.5 million light-years from us.

Because we cannot observe space beyond the observable Universe, it is unknown whether the size of the Universe in its totality is finite or infinite. Estimates for the total volume of the Universe, unless, of course, to reach as high as 10 122 {\the style property display value 10^{10^{10^{122}}}} MPC, implied by one resolution without borders offers.


4.2. Physical properties. Age and expansion. (Возраст и расширения)

Astronomers to calculate the age of Universe, assuming the Lambda-CDM model accurately describes the evolution of the Universe from a very uniform, hot, dense primordial form to its current state and the measurement of cosmological parameters making up the model. This model is theoretically well understood and supported by recent high-precision astronomical observations such as WMAP and Planck. Usually, the feature set of observations includes cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the brightness / redshift relation to type Ia supernovae and large-scale clustering of galaxies, including the functions of the baryon acoustic oscillations. Other observations such as the Hubble constant, the abundance of galaxy clusters, weak gravitational lensing, and globular cluster ages are generally consistent with these, providing the opportunity to test the model, but more or less accurately measure at the present time. Assuming the Lambda-CDM model is correct, measurement of parameters using different methods many experiments provide the best value of the age of the Universe in 2015 ± 0.021 13.799 billion years.

Over time, the Universe and its contents have changed, for example, the relative populations of quasars and galaxies have changed and space itself is expanding. Because of this, scientists on Earth can see light from a galaxy 30 billion light years away, although the light has gone only 13 billion years, space itself between them is expanding. This extension is consistent with the observation that light from distant galaxies was redshifted, photons emitted have been stretched to longer wavelengths and lower frequency during their journey. Analysis of the type Ia supernovae shows that the spatial expansion is accelerating.

The more matter there is in the Universe, the stronger the mutual gravitational attraction of matter. If the universe were too dense, then it will again collapse into a gravitational singularity. However, if the universe contains too little matter, that its own gravity would be too weak for astronomical structures like galaxies or planets to form. From the moment of the Big Bang, the universe has been expanding monotonically. It is not surprising that our universe has just the right density of energy-mass, equivalent to about 5 protons per cubic meter, which allowed it to expand over the past 13.8 billion years, giving time to form the Universe as it is observed today.

There are dynamic forces acting on the particles in the Universe that affect the pace of expansion. Until 1998, it is expected that the growth rate will decrease as time went on due to the influence of gravitational interactions in the Universe, and, therefore, there is an optional observed quantity in the Universe called the deceleration parameter that most cosmologists expected to be positive and in this matter the density of the Universe. In 1998, the deceleration parameter was measured by two different groups to be negative, approximately -0.55, which technically means that the second derivative of the cosmic scale factor a {\the style property display the value of {\ddot {a}}} has been positive in the last 5-6 billion years. This acceleration, however, does not mean that the Hubble parameter at the present time increases, see parameter braking for parts.


4.3. Physical properties. Continuum. (Континуум)

Chronotopes are objects in which all physical events occur. The main elements of chronotopos events. At any point in the space-time event defined as an exceptional situation in a unique time. Space-time is the Union of all events in the same way that a line is the Union of all its points, formally organized into a manifold.

The universe appears to be smooth spacetime continuum consisting of three spatial dimensions and one time dimension the time of the event, therefore, space-time physical Universe can be defined by four coordinates: X, y, Z, T). On average, space is very nearly flat with curvature close to zero, which means that Euclidean geometry is empirically true with high accuracy throughout the Universe. The space also seems to be odnoskatnoj topology, in analogy with the sphere, at least on the length-scale of the observable Universe. However, at present, observations do not exclude the possibility that the universe has more dimensions, which postulated theories such as string theory, and that its space can be multiply connected global topology, in analogy with the cylindrical or toroidal topologies of two-dimensional spaces. The space-time Universe is usually interpreted from a Euclidean point of view, with space as consisting of three dimensions, and time as consisting of one dimension, the "fourth dimension". By combining space and time into a single manifold called Minkowski space, physicists have simplified a large number of physical theories, as described in a more uniform way of functioning of the Universe as sverkhplastichnost and subatomic levels.

The events of space-time is not absolutely defined spatially and temporarily, but enough is known to be relative to the observers motion. Minkowski space is equal to the universe without gravity, pseudo-Riemannian manifold of General relativity describing space-time with matter and gravity.


4.4. Physical properties. Form. (Форма)

General relativity describes space-time warps and bends in the mass and energy of gravitation. The topology or the geometry of the Universe includes both local geometry in the observable Universe and global geometry. Cosmologists often use this space as a piece of space-time called accompanying frame of reference. The section of spacetime that can be observed backward light cone, which limits the cosmological horizon. The cosmological Horizon is also called the particle horizon light horizon is the maximum distance from which particles can have travelled to the observer in the age of the Universe. This horizon represents the boundary between the observable and unobservable regions of the Universe. The existence, properties and significance of a cosmological horizon depend on the particular cosmological model.

An important parameter in determining the future development of the theory of the Universe is the density parameter omega, Ω, defined as the average matter density of the Universe divided by the critical density. This selects one of three possible geometries depending on Ω equal to, less than or greater than 1. They are called, respectively, the flat, open and closed universes.

Observations, including the cosmic background Explorer BER, Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe WMAP and Planck maps of the CMB show that the universe is infinite in space with a finite age, as described by Friedman–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker FLRW model. Thus, these FLRW models support the inflationary models and the standard model of cosmology, describing a flat, homogeneous universe currently dominated by dark matter and dark energy.


4.5. Physical properties. Support life. (Жизнеобеспечения)

The universe may be fine-tuning of the Universe hypothesis is the assumption that the conditions that ensure the existence of observable life in the Universe can only occur when certain universal fundamental physical constants lie within a very narrow range of values so that if any of several fundamental constants were only slightly different, the universe would be unlikely to contribute to the establishment and development of matter, astronomical structures, elemental diversity, or life as it is to understand. The proposition is discussed among philosophers, scientists, theologians, and proponents of creationism.


5. Composition. (Состав)

The universe is made almost entirely of dark energy, dark matter and normal matter. Other content of electromagnetic radiation is variously estimated at from 0.005% to close to 0.01% of the total mass-energy of the Universe and antimatter.

The proportions of all types of matter and energy has changed throughout the history of the Universe. The total amount of electromagnetic radiation generated in the Universe has dropped to 1 / 2 in the last 2 billion years. Today, ordinary matter, which includes atoms, stars, galaxies, and life is only 4.9% of the total contents of the Universe. Currently the overall density of this type of matter is very low, about 4.5 × 10 -31 grams per cubic centimeter, which corresponds to the density of the order of just one proton for every four cubic meters of volume. The nature of dark energy and dark matter is unknown. Dark matter, a mysterious form of matter that has not yet been determined, accounted for 26.8% of the space content. Dark energy is that the energy of empty space and causes the expansion of the Universe to accelerate, accounts for the remaining 68.3% of the contents.

Matter, dark matter, and dark energy is uniformly distributed throughout the Universe over a length scale of more than 300 million light years or so. However, a shorter length-Scales, typically a lump hierarchically, congenerous atoms in stars, most stars and galaxies, most galaxies into clusters, superclusters and, finally, large-scale galactic filaments. The observable Universe contains more than 2 trillion 10 12 galaxies and, in General, about 1 × 10 24 stars more stars than all the grains of sand on planet Earth. Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as 10 7 ten million stars to giants with one trillion 10 12 stars. Meanwhile, the larger structure of voids, which are usually 10-150 MPC 33 million–490 million ly in diameter. The milky Way is in local group of galaxies, which in turn is in the Laniakea supercluster. This supercluster has more than 500 million light years, while the Local group has more than 10 million light-years. The universe also has large regions of relative emptiness, the void known measures 1.8 billion ly 550 level.

The observable universe is isotropic at scales much larger than superclusters of galaxies, which means that the statistical properties of the Universe same in all directions, as seen from the Earth. The universe is bathed in a highly isotropic microwave radiation that corresponds to the spectrum of blackbody radiation thermal equilibrium approximately 2.72548 Kelvins. The hypothesis that the large-scale structure of the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic is known as the cosmological principle. The universe is homogeneous and isotropic looks the same from all points of view and has no center.


5.1. Composition. Dark energy. (Темная энергия)

The explanation for why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, is not yet possible. It is often associated with dark energy, an unknown form of energy that is assumed to permeate space. Mass–energy equivalence basis, the density of dark energy ~ 7 × 10 -30 g / cm 3 is much smaller than the density of ordinary matter and dark matter in galaxies. However, in the present dark energy era, it dominates the mass–energy of the Universe because it is uniform in space.

Two proposed forms for dark energy is cosmological constant, a constant energy density filling space homogeneously, and scalar fields such as quintessence or modules, dynamic variables, the energy density of which may vary in space and time. The contributions of scalar fields that are constant in space are usually also included in the cosmological constant. Cosmological constant can be formulated as equivalent to the vacuum energy. Scalar fields with only a small amount of spatial heterogeneity is difficult to distinguish from a cosmological constant.


5.2. Composition. Dark matter. (Темная материя)

Dark matter is a hypothetical kind of matter that is invisible to the entire electromagnetic spectrum, but what makes up most of the matter in the Universe. The existence and properties of dark matter are derived from its gravitational effects on visible matter radiation and the large-scale structure of the Universe. Other than neutrinos, in the form of hot dark matter, dark matter is not detected directly, making it one of the greatest mysteries of modern astrophysics. Dark matter neither emits nor absorbs light or any other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. Dark matter, estimated to account for 26.8% of the total mass–energy and 84.5% of all matter in the Universe.


5.3. Composition. Everyday business. (Обыденное дело)

The remaining 4.9% of the mass–energy of the Universe is ordinary matter, i.e. atoms, ions, electrons, and the objects they constitute. This issue includes stars that produce much of the light we see from galaxies, and interstellar gas in interstellar and intergalactic environments, planets, and all objects of daily life that we may encounter, touch or squeeze. In fact, the vast majority of ordinary matter in the Universe is invisible, because the visible stars and gas inside galaxies and clusters make up less than 10 percent of the regular contribution, it is important that the density of mass-energy of the Universe.

Ordinary matter commonly exists in four States or phases: solids, liquids, gas and plasma. However, advances in experimental techniques revealed the previously theoretical phases, such as condensates, Bose–Einstein and Fermi condensates.

Ordinary matter consists of two types of elementary particles: quarks and leptons. For example, the proton consists of two quarks and one down quark, the neutron consists of two quarks and one quark and the electron is a kind of lepton. An atom consists of an atomic nucleus consisting of protons and neutrons, and electrons that orbit the nucleus. Because most of the mass of the atom is concentrated in its nucleus, which consists of baryons, astronomers often use the term baryonic matter to describe ordinary matter, although a small fraction of this "baryonic matter" is electrons.

Shortly after the Big Bang, the initial protons and neutrons formed from the quark–gluon plasma in the early Universe, as it cooled below two trillion degrees. A few minutes later, in a process known as Big Bang nucleosynthesis, nuclei, formed from the primordial protons and neutrons. This nucleosynthesis formed lighter elements, those with small atomic numbers up to lithium and beryllium, but the abundance of heavy elements decrease sharply with increasing atomic number. Some Boron may have been formed at this time, but the next heavy element, carbon, was not formed in significant quantities. The nucleosynthesis of the Big Bang was closed after about 20 minutes due to the rapid fall in the temperature and density of the expanding Universe. The subsequent formation of heavier elements in the result of stellar nucleosynthesis and Supernova nucleosynthesis.


5.4. Composition. Particles. (Частицы)

Ordinary matter and forces that act on matter can be described in terms of elementary particles. These particles are sometimes described as fundamental, as they are of unknown design, and it is unknown whether or not they consist of smaller and smaller particles. Of Central importance to the standard model, a theory that applies to the electromagnetic interactions and weak and strong nuclear interactions. The standard model relies on experimental evidence of the existence of particles that make up matter: quarks and leptons, and the corresponding "antimatter" by the duals, as well as particles that mediate the interactions: the photon, W and Z bosons and gluons. The standard model predicted the existence of a recently discovered Higgs boson particle which is a manifestation of the field in the Universe, which may endow particles with mass. Due to its success in explaining a variety of experimental results, the Standard model is sometimes regarded as a "theory of almost everything". The standard model, however, does not accommodate gravity. The true power of wave theory "only" was not achieved.


5.5. Composition. Hadrons. (Адроны)

Hadron is a composite particle of quarks held together by the strong interaction. Hadrons are divided into two groups: baryons, such as protons and neutrons consists of three quarks, and mesons such as pions are made of one quark and one antiquark. Of the hadrons, protons are stable, and neutrons bound in nuclei are stable. Other hadrons are unstable under normal conditions and, consequently, minor components of the modern Universe. From about 10 -6 seconds after the Big Bang, a period known as the hadron epoch, the temperature of the Universe had dropped sufficiently to allow the quarks bind into hadrons, and the mass of the Universe was dominated by hadrons. Initially the temperature was high enough to lead to the formation of hadron / anti-hadron pairs, which kept matter and anti-matter in thermal equilibrium. However, since the temperature of the Universe continued to fall, Hadron / anti-hadron pairs were no longer produced. The majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons were eliminated in the particle-antiparticle annihilation reactions, leaving a small residual hadrons when the Universe was about a second.


5.6. Composition. Leptons. (Лептоны)

In lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin of a particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but in accordance with the Pauli exclusion principle, no two leptons of the same species can be in the same condition at the same time. There are two main classes of leptons: charged leptons also known as electron-like leptons, and neutral leptons known as neutrinos. The electrons are stable and the most common charged lepton in the Universe, whereas muons and Tau are unstable particles, which quickly disintegrate after being produced in large collision energy such as cosmic rays or carried out in particle accelerators. Charged leptons can combine with other particles to form various composite particles such as atoms and positronium. Electron governs nearly all of chemistry as it is found in atoms and is directly tied to all chemical properties. Neutrinos rarely interact with anything, and therefore rarely observed. The neutrino flux in the Universe, but rarely interact with ordinary matter.

The lepton epoch was the period in the evolution of the early Universe in which the leptons dominated the mass of the Universe. It started about 1 second after the Big Bang, after the majority of hadrons and anti-hadrons annihilated each other at the end of the hadron era. During the lepton epoch the temperature of the Universe was still high enough to create lepton / anti-lepton pairs, so leptons and anti-leptons were in thermal equilibrium. About 10 seconds after the Big Bang the temperature of the Universe fell to the point where lepton / anti-lepton pairs were no longer created. Then most leptons and anti-leptons were eliminated in annihilation reactions, leaving a small residue of leptons. The mass of the Universe was then dominated by photons as it entered the next era of the photon.


5.7. Composition. PHOT. (Фота)

A photon is a quantum of light and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation. It is the carrier of Force to the electromagnetic force, even when static via virtual photons. The impact of these forces it is easy to see on a microscopic and macroscopic level, because the photon has zero rest mass, this allows long distance interactions. Like all elementary particles, photons are currently explained by quantum mechanics and exhibit wave–particle duality, exhibiting properties of waves and particles.

The photon epoch started after most leptons and anti-leptons were annihilated at the end of the lepton epoch, about 10 seconds after the Big Bang. The atomic nucleus was created during the nucleosynthesis that occurred within the first few minutes of the photon epoch. For the remainder of the photon era the Universe contained in a dense hot plasma of nuclei, electrons and photons. About 380.000 years after the Big Bang, the temperature of the Universe fell to the point where nuclei could combine with electrons to create neutral atoms. As a result, the photons do not frequently interact with matter and the universe became transparent. Highly redshifted photons from this period form the cosmic microwave background. Tiny fluctuations in the temperature and density of detectable RI was the first "seeds" from which all subsequent structure formation occurred.


6.1. Cosmological model. A model of the Universe based on General relativity. (Модель Вселенной на основе Общей теории относительности)

The General theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics. It is the basis of modern cosmological models of the Universe. General relativity generalizes special relativity and Newtons law of universal gravitation, providing a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time or space-time. In particular, the curvature of space-time is directly related to the energy and momentum of whatever matter and radiation are present. The ratio is determined by the field equations of Einstein, the system of differential equations. In General relativity the distribution of matter and energy determines the geometry of space-time, which, in turn, describes the acceleration of matter. Therefore, the solution to the field equations of Einstein, describing the evolution of the Universe. In combination with measurements of the number, type and distribution of matter in the Universe equations of General relativity describing the evolution of the Universe in time.

Based on the cosmological principle that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, a specific solution of the field equations, which describes the Universe metric tensor, called the Friedmann–Lemaitre–Robertson–Walker metric,

d s 2 = − c 2 d t 2 + R t 2 d r 2 1 − k r 2 + r 2 d θ 2 + r 2 sin 2 ⁡ θ d ϕ 2 {\displaystyle ds^{2}=-c^{2}dt^{2}+Rt^{2}\left{\frac {dr^{2}}{1-kr^{2}}}+r^{2}d\theta ^{2}+r^{2}\sin ^{2}\theta \,d\phi ^{2}\right}

where r, θ, φ corresponds to spherical coordinates. This metric has only two undetermined parameters. The total dimensionless length scale factor R characterizes the size scale of the Universe as a function of time, the increase in R is the expansion of the Universe. The index K describes the curvature of the geometry. The index K is determined in such a way that it can only take one of three values: 0, corresponding to flat Euclidean geometry, 1, which corresponds to the space of positive curvature, or -1, which corresponds to the space of positive or negative curvature. The value of R as a function of time t depends only on K and the cosmological constant Λ. The cosmological constant represents the energy density of the vacuum of space and can be associated with dark energy. The equation that describes how they change over time is called the equation of Friedman in honor of its inventor, Alexander Friedmann.

Solutions for RT depends on K and Λ, but some qualitative features of such solutions are General. First and most importantly, the length scale R of the Universe can remain constant only if the universe is perfectly isotropic with positive curvature K =1 and has one precise value of density everywhere, as first noticed by albert Einstein. However, this equilibrium is unstable: it is known that the universe should be inhomogeneous at smaller scales, R must change over time. When R changes, all the spatial distances in the Universe change in tandem there is a General expansion or contraction of space itself. This explains the observation that galaxies seem to be flying, the space between them stretches. The stretching of space also explains the apparent paradox that two galaxies can be 40 billion light years apart, although they started from the same point 13.8 billion years ago, and did not move faster than the speed of light.

Secondly, all decisions, I believe that gravitational singularity in the past, when R has fallen to zero and matter and energy were infinitely dense. It may seem that this conclusion is uncertain because it is based on questionable assumptions of perfect homogeneity and isotropy of the cosmological principle and that only the gravitational interaction is significant. However, the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems show that a singularity should exist for very General conditions. Therefore, according to the field of Einsteins equations, R grew rapidly from an incredibly hot, dense state that existed immediately following this singularity when R was small, the final value, this is the essence of the Big Bang model of the Universe. Understanding the singularity of the Big Bang, most likely, requires a quantum theory of gravity, which is not yet formulated.

Third, the curvature index K determines the sign of the mean spatial curvature of spacetime averaged over sufficiently large length scales greater than about a billion light-years. If K =1 then curvature is positive, and the universe has a finite volume. A universe with positive curvature is often visualized as a three-dimensional sphere embedded in four-dimensional space. Conversely, if K is zero or negative, the universe has infinite volume. This may seem counter-intuitive that an infinite and infinitely dense universe could be created in an instant in the Big Bang when r =0, but exactly that is predicted mathematically when K does not equal 1. By analogy, an infinite plane has zero curvature but infinite, and an infinite cylinder is finite in one direction and a torus is of course in both. A toroidal universe could behave like a normal universe with periodic boundary conditions.

The ultimate fate of the Universe is still unknown, because it depends critically on the rate of curvature K and a cosmological constant Λ. If the universe was dense enough to be equal to 1, which means that its average curvature is everywhere positive and the Universe eventually recollapse in a big crunch, perhaps the beginning of a new Universe in a big bounce. On the other hand, if the universe was dense enough, it will be equal to 0 or -1 and the universe will expand forever, cools down and eventually reaching the big freeze and heat death of the Universe. Modern data show that the rate of expansion of the Universe is not decreasing as originally expected, but more if this continues indefinitely, the universe can eventually reach a large gap. Experimentally, the universe appears flat K = 0, with an overall density that is very close to the critical value between recollapse and eternal expansion.


6.2. Cosmological model. The hypothesis of the multiverse. (Гипотеза мультивселенной)

Some speculative theories suggest that our universe is just one of many disjoint universes, collectively as the multiverse, challenging or more companies determine the Universe. The scientific model of the multiverse differ from concepts such as alternate plans of consciousness and simulated reality.

Max Tegmark developed four classification schemes for different types of multiverses that scientists have suggested in response to various physics problems. An example of such multiverses is one in the result of chaotic inflationary models of the early Universe. Another result of the multiverse in the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. In this interpretation, parallel universes are created by analogy with the quantum superposition and decoherence, with all States of the wave functions to be implemented in different worlds. Effectively, the many-worlds interpretation the multiverse evolves as a universal wave function. If the Big Bang that created our multiverse created an ensemble of multiverses, the wave function of the ensemble would be entangled in this sense.

The least controversial category of multiverse in the scheme Tegmarks level I. the Genesis of this level consist of distant events in space-time "in our Universe." If space is infinite, or sufficiently large and uniform, identical instances in Earths history the entire Hubble volume occur every so often, just randomly. Tegmark calculated that our nearest so-called doppelgänger, is 10 115 10 metres from us, the double exponential function larger than a googolplex. In principle, it would be impossible to scientifically test for the presence of identical Hubble volume. However, the existence does not follow a fairly simple consequence from otherwise unrelated scientific observations and theories.

You can imagine a disabled chronotopos, each existing but unable to interact with each other. Easily visualized metaphor, this concept is a group of separate soap bubbles, in which observers living on one soap bubble cannot interact with other soap bubbles, even in principle. One of terminology, each "soap bubble" of space-time is denoted as the universe, and our particular continuum is denoted as the universe, as we call our moon. The entire collection of these separate chronotopos is denoted as the multiverse. With this terminology, the different universes are not causally related to each other. In principle, other unrelated universes may have different dimensions and topology of space-time, different forms of matter and energy and other physical laws and physical constants, although such possibilities are purely speculative. Others believe that each of several bubbles created in the framework of chaotic inflation, separate universes, although in this model these universes all share a causal origin.


7. Historical concepts. (Исторические концепции)

Historically, there were many ideas of the cosmology of the Universe and its origin, of cosmogony. Theories of an impersonal universe operates by physical laws were first proposed by the Greeks and the Indians. Ancient Chinese philosophy includes the concept of the universe, including all space and all time. For centuries, the improvement of astronomical observations and theories of motion and gravity led to an even more accurate description of the Universe. The modern era of cosmology began with albert Einsteins General theory of relativity in 1915, which gave the possibility to quantitatively predict the occurrence, development and end of the Universe as a whole. Most modern, accepted theories of cosmology based on General relativity and, in particular, predicted the Big Bang.


7.1. Historical concepts. Mythology. (Мифология)

Many cultures have stories describing the origin of the world and the Universe. Culture, tend to view these stories as some kind of truth. However, there are many different beliefs in how these stories are being circulated among the believers in the supernatural origin of God directly creating the universe as it is now Gods just setting the "wheels in motion", for example, through mechanisms such as the Big Bang and evolution.

Ethnologists and anthropologists who study the myths have been developed various classification schemes on various topics that appear in the story of creation. For example, in one type of story in the world is born from the world egg, such stories include the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, the Chinese story of Pangu or the Indian Brahmanda Purana. In a related story, the universe is created by a single entity emanating or producing something for yourself, as in Tibetan Buddhism concept of ADI-Buddha, the ancient Greek story of Gaia, Mother Earth, the Aztec goddess Coatlicue myth, the ancient Egyptian God Atum story, and the Judeo-Christian Genesis creation narrative, in which the Abrahamic God created the Universe. In another type of story, the universe is created from the Union of male and female deities, as in the history of the Maori Rangi and Papa. In another story, the universe is created by crafting from already existing materials such as the corpse of a dead God - as from Tiamat in the Babylonian epic "Enuma Elish" or from the giant Ymir in Norse mythology-or from chaotic materials, as in Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology. In other stories, the Universe emanates from fundamental principles, such as Brahman and prakrti, the creation myth of the African Party of democracy and socialism, or the Yin and Yang of the Tao.


7.2. Historical concepts. The philosophical model. (Философские модели)

In pre-Socratic Greek philosophers and Indian philosophers developed some of the earliest philosophical concepts of the universe. The earliest Greek philosophers noted that appearances can be deceiving, and trying to understand the underlying reality behind appearance. In particular, they noted the ability of matter to change forms, for example, ice, water, steam, and several philosophers proposed that all matter in the world different forms of a single primordial material, or Arche. The first was Thales, who proposed this material is water. A student of Thales, Anaximander, proposed that everything came from an infinite Apeiron. Anaximenes suggested that the original material should be air on account of its perceived attractive and repulsive qualities that cause the Arche to merge or to divide into different shapes. Anaxagoras put forward the principle of the quickness of the mind, while Heraclitus proposed fire and speaks of the logos. Empedocles proposed the elements of earth, water, air and fire. His four-element model has become very popular. Like Pythagoras, Plato believed that all things are composed of number, with the Empedocles elements, taking the form of the Platonic solids. Democritus, and later philosophers, especially Leucippus - proposed that the universe consists of indivisible atoms moving through the void of the vacuum, while Aristotle does not believe that it was feasible because air, like water, offers resistance to motion. The air will immediately rush in to fill the void, and, in addition, without resistance, it will make it infinitely fast.

Although Heraclitus argued for eternal change, his contemporary Parmenides made the radical suggestion that all change is illusion, that the true reality is eternally unchanging and uniform in nature. Parmenides denoted this reality as τὸ ἐν alone. Ideas of Parmenides seemed implausible to many Greeks, but his student Zeno of Elea challenged them with several famous paradoxes. Aristotle responded to these paradoxes by developing the notion of a potential countable infinity, as infinitely divisible continuum. Unlike the eternal and unchanging cycles of time, he believed that the world is bordered by the celestial spheres, and that the total magnitude is only a finite multiplicative.

Indian philosopher Canada, founder of the Vaisheshika school, developed the concept of atomism and proposed that light and heat were varieties of the same substance. In the 5th century ad, the Buddhist atomist philosopher Dignāga proposed atoms have to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy. They denied the existence of substantial matter and proposed flashed with momentary flashes of a stream of energy.

The notion of temporal finitism was inspired by the doctrine of creation, is common to all three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, presented the philosophical arguments against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past and future. Philoponuss arguments against an infinite past were used by the early Muslim philosopher, al-Kindi Alkindus, the Jewish philosopher Saadia Gaon Saadia Ben Joseph, and the Muslim theologian al-Ghazalis refutation of the philosophers.


7.3. Historical concepts. Astronomical concepts. (Астрономические понятия)

The astronomical model of the Universe was only offered after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers, who viewed the Universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like Anaximander and hecataeus of Miletus.

Later Greek philosophers, observing the movements of the heavenly bodies, were concerned with developing models of the Universe based more profoundly on empirical evidence. The first coherent model was proposed by Eudoxus Cnidos. According to Aristotles physical interpretation of the model, celestial spheres eternally rotate with uniform motion around a stationary Earth. A normal question is completely contained within the earths sphere.

De Mundo of up to 250 BC, or between 350 and 200 BC, said that "the five elements, located in areas in the five regions, the less in each case surrounded by the greater - namely, Earth surrounded by water by air by fire ether, constitute the whole Universe".

This model is also been refined by Callippus and after concentric spheres were abandoned, it was delivered in nearly perfect agreement with astronomical observations by Ptolemy. The success of the model is largely due to the mathematical fact that any function, for example, the position of the planet can be decomposed into a set of circular functions of the Fourier modes. Other Greek scholars such as the philosopher Filoli Pythagoras, postulated according account Stobaeus, in the center of the Universe was a "Central fire" around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and planets revolved in uniform circular motion.

Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric model of the Universe. Although the original text was lost, the link to the book Archimedes the sand reckoner describes the heliocentric model Aristarchuss. Archimedes wrote:

You king Gelon, know that the universe is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere whose centre is in the centre of the Earth, and its radius equal to the straight line between the center of the Sun and the center of the Earth. This is a shared account, as you have heard from astronomers. But Aristarchus brought a book consisting of certain hypotheses, wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumption that the universe is many times greater than the universe just mentioned. His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the sun remain unmoved, that the Earth revolves around the Sun in the circumference of the circle, the Sun lying in the middle of the orbit, and that the sphere of fixed stars, situated about the same centre as the Sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes that the Earth revolves bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the center of the sphere to its surface bears

Aristarchus thus believed the stars are very far away, and saw this as the cause of stellar parallax was not observed, that is, stars were not observed to move relative to each other as the Earth revolves around the Sun. The stars are actually much further away than the distance that was assumed in ancient times, is why stellar parallax is only detectable with precision instruments. The geocentric model, consistent with planetary parallax, was assumed explanation of the reason for nenablyudaemo a parallel phenomenon, stellar parallax. The rejection of the heliocentric view was apparently quite strong, as in the following passage from Plutarchs pointing out the obvious face of the moon:

The Cleanthes. if the sky is at peace, and the Earth revolves in an oblique circle, while it rotates, at the same time around its own axis

A single astronomer from antiquity known by name who supported Aristarchuss the heliocentric model was Seleucus of Seleucia, a Hellenistic astronomer who lived a century after Aristarchus. According to Plutarch, Seleucus was the first to prove the heliocentric system through reasoning, but it is not known what arguments he used. Seleucus arguments for a heliocentric cosmology was probably connected with the phenomenon of the tides. According to Strabo, 1.1.9, Seleucus was the first to assert that the tides due to the attraction of the moon and that the height of the tides depends on the position of the moon relative to the Sun. In addition, it can be proved heliocentricity by determining the constants of a geometric model and development of methods to compute planetary positions using this model, like what Nicolaus Copernicus later in the 16th century. In the Middle ages, heliocentric models were also proposed by the Indian astronomer Aryabhata, and Persian astronomers, Albumasar and al-Sijzi.

Aristotles model was adopted in the Western world for about two millennia, until Copernicus revived the prospect Aristarchuss that astronomic data can be explained more plausibly, if the Earth rotates around its axis and if the Sun is placed in the center of the Universe.

In the center rests the Sun. Who would place this lamp of a very beautiful temple in another or better place than this wherefrom it can illuminate everything at the same time?

As noted by Copernicus himself, the notion that the Earth rotates was very old, Dating back at least with Filala. 450 BC Heraclides of Pontus C. 350 BC and Ecphantus the Pythagorean. Roughly a century before Copernicus, Christian scholar Nicholas of Cusa also proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis in his book, on learned ignorance 1440. Al-Sijzi also suggested that the Earth rotates around its axis. Empirical evidence of the Earths rotation around its axis, using the phenomenon of comets, was given by Tusi 1201-1274 and Ali Qushji 1403-1474.

This cosmology was accepted by Isaac Newton, Christiaan Huygens and later scientists. Edmond Halley 1720 and Jean-Philippe de city Chezeaux. 1744 mentioning that the assumption of an infinite space filled uniformly with stars would lead to the prediction that the nighttime sky would be as bright as the Sun itself, it became known as the paradox of Olbers in the early 19th century. Newton believed that an infinite space uniformly filled with matter was a cause infinite forces and instabilities causing the matter to be crushed inwards under its own gravity. This instability was clarified in 1902 by the jeans criterion of instability. One of the ways to solve these paradoxes is the Charlier Universe, in which matter is arranged hierarchically system of orbiting bodies that are themselves orbiting in a larger system, ad infinitum in a fractal, the universe has a negligibly small overall density, such a cosmological model had also been proposed earlier in 1761 by Johann Heinrich Lambert. Significant astronomical until the 18th century was the realization of Thomas Wright, Immanuel Kant and others of nebulae.

In 1919, when the hooker telescope was completed, the prevailing view still was that the universe consisted entirely of the milky Way galaxy. Using the hooker telescope, Edwin Hubbles Cepheid variables is defined in several spiral nebulae, and in 1922-1923 proved that Andromeda and the triangle, among other things, entire galaxies outside our own, thus proving that the universe consists of many galaxies.

The modern era of physical cosmology began in 1917, when albert Einstein first applied his General Theory of Relativity, for modeling the structure and dynamics of the Universe.

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Astrophysics: The Violent Universe edX.

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Universe in the Park UitP is a popular outreach program of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Wisconsin Madison. UitP is predicated on a very. Scientists: Something About the Universe Doesnt Look Right. 3 hours ago Cosmology is about understanding the evolution of our universe how it evolved in the past, what it is doing now and what will happen in the. Map of the Universe ™ Manager Tools. 4 days ago A closed Universe can provide a physical explanation for this effect, with the Planck cosmic microwave background spectra now preferring a. Universe Sell Tickets, Create Events and Discover Experiences. Nov 1, 2019 Yet another study has calculated the Hubble Constant and come to a different conclusion, raising more questions about the nature of our.

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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